At the eve of the arab spring, one out of four egyptians and tunisians young was out of employment. The arab springs looming refugee crisis foreign policy. The arab spring was a phenomenon that shocked the international community. Indeed, islam will permeate far more than heretofore the political and social fabric of the countries of the arab world and beyond, unfortunately some far less moderately than others. Disturbances have ranged from protests to full civil war and. The deadline for the drafts of the 19 reports from the middle east and north africa was the end of january 2011 thus, exactly the point at which tunisia and egypt. This paper strives to shed light on this question by studying egypts arab spring. Arab spring economist world news, politics, economics. Jun 23, 2011 the arab springs looming refugee crisis. Inspired by the contentious politics school and social movement theory, arab spring in egypt addresses these issues, examining the reasons behind the collapse of egypts authoritarian regime. Disturbances have ranged from protests to full civil war and the overthrow of government. Ben alis in tunisia on 17 january, mubaraks in egypt on 11 february, qadhafis in libya on 23 august, and saleh in yemen. The series of popular uprisings known as the arab spring began in 2011.
Change and purification are two key words you often hear nowadays among egyptian and tunisian journalists. List of books and articles about arab spring online. Instead, that spring has given way to a winter of economic stagnation and political violence that has plunged syria, libya and yemen into bloody civil war, has led to widespread unrest in egypt, iraq and bahrain, and threatens to destabilize arab governments from morocco to saudi arabia. In this article, we begin with the puzzle of how the 2011 mass mobilizations in egypt. Its causes and consequences 3 arab countries barany, 2011. Though many commentators have warned that the arab spring is turning into an. The egyptian revolution was a demand by its people for bread, freedom and social justicebut.
The repressive and violent nature of the arab regimes also ranks high on the list of major factors culminating in the 2011 arab uprisings. Most of the arab regimes, with the exception of a few, are classified as highly authoritarian systems. Thi s researc h articl e attempts to scrutinize the nature and cause s of the ara b uprising s which too k people by surpris e globall y throughou t 2011 and int o 2012. Ruth hanau santini writes on womens rights in tunisia, egypt and libya in the wake of the arab awakening. To move beyond this arab spring legacy and regain a reputation for mediation and diplomacy, qatar may well have to step back from the regional leadership that was characteristic of dohas policies during and after the arab spring, and act instead as a facilitator of dialogue and quiet negotia. The internet blackout in egypt failed to stop the protests, and instead seemed to fuel them. Arab spring used their powers vehemently to crush the demonstrators and consequently the peaceful protesters also became violent. Case studies of tunisia and egypt abdulsattar, tammam omer msc. Jan, 2012 if the mediterranean theater of the arab spring tunisia, egypt, libya and syria has been the main focus of events, the gulf theater is no less important.
Arab springaffected countries suffered even more due to the 2008 economic crisis. Nahid afrose kabir1 he arab spring was a civil uprising mainly of arab youths in tunisia and egypt. Nahid afrose kabir 1 he arab spring was a civil uprising mainly of arab youths in tunisia and egypt which commenced in december 2010 and january 2011 respectively. The geopolitics of the region grc paper the arab spring has yet to give way to the hopedfor glorious summer, but for iran it has already turned into a winter of discontent. The arab spring in egypt religious literacy project. Mubaraks regime was a perfect specimen of economic. Arab spring affected countries suffered even more due to the 2008 economic crisis.
Spring, egypt, women and the arab spring, agents of change and the. In december 2010, protests began against the autocratic government in the northern african country of tunisia. Causes of the arab spring causes of the arab spring may be described as following. Iran finds its revolutionary message diluted and overtaken by events. Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by. Women played their part as leaders and participants, and were not spared the backlash suffering arrests, sexual harassment and even death. To move beyond this arab spring legacy and regain a reputation for mediation and diplomacy, qatar may well have to step back from the regional leadership that was characteristic of dohas policies during and after the arab spring, and act instead as. The armed forces played a decisive role in many of the arab uprisings, particularly the early ones. Arab spring revisitedthe battle for democracy in egypt. In egypt, protests and strikes began on january 25, 2011. The reasons and economic and political consequences of. Zulkuf aydin sep 2015, 108 pages arab spring is a political concept that spread widely in the media and academic art publications. The arab spring was a series of prodemocracy uprisings that enveloped several largely muslim countries, including tunisia, morocco, syria, libya, egypt and bahrain.
Home browse history african history african countries egypt arab spring arab spring arising in large part in reaction to economic stresses, societal changes, and entrenched corrupt and repressive rule, the arab spring began in tunisia in dec. During egypts arab spring, unprecedented popular mobilization and protests brought down hosni. However, the economic models chosen by the successive regimes were ineffective in. The term arab spring, while controversial, has come to represent the events that have rocked this region since the beginning of 2011. At the time of writing, the arab spring has already brought down four heads of state, in tunisia, egypt, libya, and yemen. Understanding the dynamics of the arab spring polsoz. Between the islamic state and the nationstate the brookings project on u. The common slogan of the protesters throughout arab spring was the people want to bring down the regime aissa, 2012.
Along with the decrease in production, the demographic boom was also responsible for increasing unemployment. Arab spring, wave of prodemocracy protests and uprisings that took place in the middle east and north africa beginning in 2010, challenging some of the regions entrenched authoritarian regimes. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in tunisia noueihed, 2011. Six years later, little remains of the hopes that the west saw in the arab spring.
Ascendancy frustrated gulf research center 5 introduction. They also wanted more democracy, and end to corruption, and economic opportunity. Origins of the social media movement in arab nations. Jan 29, 2018 six years later, little remains of the hopes that the west saw in the arab spring. It both challenged the political status quo in the middle east and attempted to write a new chapter in the history of the region. February 2011 01 egypt mubarak declares he wont run in the next election, but will oversee the transition. Egypt this guide lists online and print sources for what has become known as the arab spring, the popular revolutionary wave in the middle east and north africa that started in december 2010.
If the mediterranean theater of the arab spring tunisia, egypt, libya and syria has been the main focus of events, the gulf theater is no less important. Parks on november 45, 2011, the asan institute for policy studies held the first asan middle east conference, a biennial gathering of the worlds foremost experts on the middle east and north africa mena region. Starting with tunisia in december of 2010, the citizens of egypt, libya, and iran all voiced dissatisfaction with their governing leaders within the same period. In late 2010, the wave of civil resistance known as the arab spring stunned the world as dictatorships in tunisia, egypt, and libya were overthrown, while the regimes of bahrain, syria, and yemen brutally suppressed their own revolutions. Six years ago the biggest revolution of the arab spring sent shockwaves across the arab world. Bahrain, tunisia, libya, syria, and yemen could happen, and how they could. Bunker regimes arab monarchies have been the least affected by the arab spring, echoing eva bellins suggestion that the truisms of the. Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by their countries security forces. The role of social media in the arab spring, a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in the middle east and north africa between 2010 and 2012, remains a highly debated subject. The first phase of egypts arab spring ended on april 16, 2011, when an administrative court dissolved the ndp on charges of corruption and seized its assets. After female activists played a prominent role in actions leading to the recent.
Citations 0 references 274 researchgate has not been able to resolve any citations for this. The arab spring jason marshall introduction the arab spring is a blanket term to cover a multitude of uprisings and protests in the middle east that began in the winter of 2010 and continue today. Demystifying the arab spring parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya lisa anderson in tunisia, protesters escalated calls for the restoration of the countrys suspended constitution. Likewise, comunello and anzera 2012 argued that internet scholars cannot understand the full picture of what happened during the arab spring without some knowl. The islamic political parties of tunisia and egypt gained particular attention for their success in the national elections following the overthrow of their. Analysis of the arab spring 3 blunders in state response, in particular using a heavyhanded approach and trying to crush opposition, had the reverse effect of galvanising more people to join the protests icg, 2011b and 2011d. However, these measures did not prevent the overthrowing of the egyptian and tunisian governments, which some argue proves that social medias role in the arab spring is overplayed. Islam and democracy after the arab spring oxford scholarship. Panel a of table 3 shows the differential returns for ndp, military, and islamicconnected firms during key events of the second phase under military rule.
Pdf egyptian revolution, also known as arab spring or arab uprising, was a shock for international community because egypt has been seen as one of the. The arab spring refers to a period of protests beginning on december 18, 2010 in tunisia, which quickly spread to numerous other arab nations and resulted in regime change in tunisia, libya, egypt, and yemen, and repression andor violence in syria, bahrain, sudan, and elsewhere. The gaddafi archives libya before the arab spring view gallery an exhibition of photographs, documents and artefacts from the human rights watch archive paints a portrait of libya in the four decades prior to the arab spring. In egypt, protests and strikes began on january 25, 2011 national police day and lasted for 18 days, bringing. The profile of arab spring protestors 117 arab spring protests and riots 120 7 the aftermath of the arab spring 127 introduction 127 state responses to the arab spring 128 foreign interventions, identitybased polarization, and highintensity civil wars 1 overlapping horizontal divisions 5 what explains the arab paradox of political. At the time of writing, the arab spring has seen the collapse of four heads of the regions authoritarian regimes. Hundreds of thousands of tunisians took to the streets calling for an end to authoritarian rule.
The economics of the arab spring and its aftermath world bank. Later, similar rebellions followed in libya, bahrain, syria and yemen. The reasons and economic and political consequences of arab spring 43 egypt, where arab spring lasted longer, is one of the largest countries in africa with its advantages such as its location, tourism revenues and logistics moaddel, 2012. By the end of the 1950s, most arab countries had gained their independence. Uprisings occurred in states regardless of their levels of internet usage, with some states with high levels of internet usage such as bahrain, with 88% of its population online in 2011 experiencing. Arab spring arab spring arising in large part in reaction to economic stresses, societal changes, and entrenched corrupt and repressive rule, the arab spring began in tunisia in dec. They quickly toppled the autocratic govern ments of tunisia, egypt, libya, and yemen. The arab spring started in countries that actually had economic growth. Understanding attitudes and responses to the new middle east by benedetta berti from the outset, the arab spring has taken the world by storm. Momani bessma arab spring a genuine revolutionary movement. Arab spring research guide and notes sheet introduction.559 674 388 61 1353 236 863 973 388 741 595 747 795 617 805 316 1014 500 1173 586 286 453 1080 639 1099 891 792 719 417 575 484 833 966 1432 1028 1471 294 469 48